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The center of the epicycle rotates in a counter-clockwise direction on the circumference of a deferent circle; but this circular motion is uniform, not with respect to the center of the deferent, but with respect to another point called the equant.Moreover, the center of the earth lies not at the center of the deferent circles, but in the case of each in the opposite direction from the equant and at the same distance from the deferent-center.There exist three Persian translations of this; the first was made by Ḵᵛāǰa Naṣīr-al-dīn Ṭūsī in 1250, while the other two date from the seventeenth century. Abu’l-Wafāʾ Būzǰānī (328-388/940-98) wrote, among other things, of Battānī. Abu’l-Rayḥān Moḥammad Bīrūnī was a prolific author of astronomical treatises in the first half of the eleventh century. There is a Persian version of this as well as an Arabic epitome; the latter was translated into Greek by Gregory Chioniades in about 1300. ʿAbd-al-Karīm Šīrvānī, known as al-Fahhād, wrote six written by Moḥammad Fāresī for Yūsof Moẓaffar, the ruler of the Yemen from about 1249 till 1295; it was also translated into Greek by Gregory Chioniades in about 1300.It was translated into Persian in 483/1090 by Moḥammad b. Among the more important ones that are still extant are: for the Saljuq Sultan Sanǰar b. In this period were also written many treatises un the astrolabe and on other astronomical instruments.But it seems unlikely, in the present state of our ignorance, that these Indian texts added anything of significance to Oloḡ Beg’s work, which remained the authoritative treatise on astronomy in Persian until the introduction of modern astronomy in the nineteenth century. The sun and moon emblems on Arsacid coins may simply reflect traditional Iranian reverence for the chief luminaries, but they may also be symptoms of a growing consciousness of astrology (the most developed form of divination), particularly of the individual’s nativity.(See suggestions on the role of the Parthians in Neugebauer, and see also below).It was in the course of the Sasanian period, however, that Iran assimilated both Hellenistic-Roman and Indian sciences of the heavens and integrated these with traditional Zoroastrian ideas.

But the essential models and methods of Ptolemaic astronomy were not challenged.(The moon and Mercury have peculiar devices of their own, while the sun has a simple eccentric model.) These geometric models of Ptolemy, if regarded as representing physical reality, cause the planets to travel in orbits of which the earth is not the center and which, in any case, are not circular; moreover, even the mean motion is not uniform circular motion about the center of the deferent.But Aristotelian physics attributes to the heavenly bodies uniform circular motion through eternity about the center of the universe, where the earth is located; this is a condition of the perfection of the fifth element.For many of the eighth and ninth-century Islamic astronomers, though they wrote in Arabic, came from Iran and used Pahlavi works on astronomy and astrology. Besides preserving valuable information about Ḵosrow’s Royal Tables he wrote a work on astronomy, translated into Latin as the . Farroḵān Ṭabarī was an astrologer from Ṭabarestān who translated Pahlavi works into Arabic (for example, the five books on astrology by Dorotheus of Sidon) and paraphrased Ptolemy’s ) in 812. Moḥammad Nehāvandī made astronomical observations at Jondīšāpūr in about 790. Rabbān Ṭabarī translated Ptolemy’s , as modified by Abu’l-Qāsem Maslama Maǰrītī and Ebn al-Ṣaffār, was translated into Latin by Adelard of Bath in 1126. ʿAbd-al-Malek from Marv-al-rūd was one of the leading astronomical observers under al-Maʾmūn. Abū Maʿšar (171-272/787-886) came to Baghdad from Balḵ, and began the practice of astrology there in the 820s.This work contains a unique exposition of a Syrian planetary theory that combines Aristotelian and Ptolemaic theories with what appear to be Indian ones transmitted through Sasanian Iran. Nowbaḵt Ḥakīm was an astrologer from Iran contemporaneous with Māšāʾallāh; his son, Abū Sahl Fażl, also an astrologer, was one of the leading intellectuals in the Baghdad of Hārūn al-Rašīd. The few astronomical theories with which his name is associated are Indian; he presumably derived them from Pahlavi books. By this translations, and that of the commentary of Ebn al-Moṯannā by Hugh of Sanctalla, and by the is also the basis of the astronomy of the Samaritans. Abī Manṣūr, who came from Ṭabarestān to the court of al-Maʾmūm in Baghdad, was the principle author of the . In his , written between 226/840 and 246/860, he combined the Indian, Sasanian, and Greek astronomical traditions to which Islam was heir, and attributed the resulting amalgamation of disparate elements to an antediluvian Persian text that he claimed to have been written in the reign of Ṭahmūraṯ. Ḥabaš Ḥāseb from Marv wrote at least two s in the middle of the ninth century, which represent the beginnings of the development of trigonometry and the construction of new astronomical tables that characterized the next, otherwise Ptolemaic, period of Islamic astronomy. Moḥammad Farḡānī, also in the middle of the ninth century, wrote an abridgement of Ptolemaic astronomy that was translated into Latin by John of Seville in 1135 and by Gerhard of Cremona in the 1170s; this work maintained its popularity in the west as an astronomical textbook into the sixteenth century.

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